First of all, automobile suspension can be divided into two types: non-independent suspension and independent suspension. Non-independent suspension is characterized by that the wheels on both sides swing at the same time, while the independent suspension features that the wheels on both sides can jump independently without affecting each other. As modern people have higher and higher requirements for car ride comfort and handling, non-independent suspensions have gradually been eliminated. The independent suspension is currently widely adopted by automobile manufacturers because of its good wheel contact with the ground, greatly improved ride comfort and controllability, free movement of the left and right wheels, greater freedom between the tires and the ground, and better vehicle controllability. Therefore, comparing non-independent suspension and independent suspension, it is clear at a glance which car suspension is better. Common independent suspensions include multi-link suspension, MacPherson suspension, double wishbone suspension, air suspension and so on. Each suspension has its own advantages and disadvantages, which are briefly introduced below.
1. Multi-link suspension refers to a combination of multiple control arms. Its main advantages are: good controllability, good comfort, reduced friction, and reduced understeer problems. Disadvantages: large space and high cost. 2. MacPherson suspension is currently the most common and popular type of suspension, which is mostly used for front wheels. Its biggest advantages are: compact structure, less space occupied, small changes in the positioning parameters of the front wheels when the wheels bounce, good handling stability, and relatively low cost. Disadvantages: poor stability, weak anti-roll and brake nodding ability. 3. The double-wishbone independent suspension is also called A-arm suspension. It can be regarded as an improved suspension of McPherson, which has one more upper control arm than the McPherson. Its advantages are: large lateral rigidity, excellent anti-roll performance, good grip performance, and clear road feeling. Disadvantages: high manufacturing cost, complicated setting of suspension positioning parameters, and high complexity during maintenance. It is difficult to determine the parameters when positioning the suspension and four-wheel positioning, and takes up a lot of space. 4. The air suspension can increase or decrease the height of the chassis according to the different road undulations, so that the vehicle can adapt to the driving needs of a variety of road conditions. Its biggest advantages are: light weight, high comfort, and good passability. Disadvantages: complex structure and high maintenance cost. At present, most mid-to-high-end cars will use front and rear multi-link combined suspensions. In the past, double-wishbone independent suspensions were mostly used on the rear wheels of mid-range cars. Now they are generally used on high-end cars, while air suspensions are general. It can only be seen on high-end cars, so I won’t talk about it here. Let me talk about the relationship between shock absorbers and suspension and the role of shock absorbers in car suspension.
Car suspension is the entire support system composed of springs and shock absorbers between the body and the tires. The shock absorber is used to suppress the shock and the impact from the road surface when the spring rebounds after absorbing the shock, so as to improve the driving comfort of the car. The shock absorber is a very important part of the car suspension, it is easy to wear during the use of the car, and the quality of the shock absorber will directly affect the smoothness of the car and the life of other parts. Therefore, regular inspection and replacement of shock absorbers are also compulsory courses for every car owner.